⌚ Frederick Douglass Blissful Ignorance Analysis
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Frederick Douglass: Crash Course Black American History #17
In short, the mythical brute became the realistic thug via the process of criminalization. The image of Black men as brutes in society has a long legacy that begins with the social construction of race and brings us to the current period of mass incarceration. In the United States, Black men are six times as likely to go to jail or prison as White men Gao, This disproportionate and unequal number indicates the skewed representation of Black men in U. However, the argument is shifted to no longer being about race but about crime and community safety. While historically in America overt racist language was socially acceptable, there has been a cultural shift of social intolerance to this blatant racist behavior.
This does not mean that racism or discriminatory actions have been eradicated but rather driven beneath the surface and reemerged as coded language, gestures, signs, and symbols to indicate difference. Over the last several years with the proliferation of social media, many more events are documented and shared via social networking sites Yar, ; Smiley, Some of these events captured on video are cases involving unarmed Black males being killed by law enforcement agents. While some videos show the disturbing death, such as Eric Garner, others show the aftermath like that of Michael Brown's body in the street.
These deaths and others have sparked outrage across communities looking for justice and accountability of law enforcement's excessive force when dealing with Black people. In this case, the blame moves from law enforcement agents to the Black males who have been killed. For this study, media coverage of the deaths of six unarmed Black males resulting from law enforcement interaction were investigated. Specifically, the portrayal of the incidents and the victims involved via newspaper articles were examined. Newspaper articles were chosen as the modality for investigations because of the understanding that all published articles go through a vetting process. As a result the articles, including the perceptions created, are an organizational decision. The cases garnered significant national and international coverage for a notable period of time, leading to a considerable database from which to select samples.
The incidents chosen for analysis are as follows, listed in chronological order from earliest to latest:. Michael Brown, Jr. Tony Robinson — 19 years old, died March 6, due to multiple gunshot wounds after altercation with Madison Police Department officer Matt Kenny in Madison, Wisconsin. For each incident ten news articles, each published no more than 30 days after the victim's death, were selected. The time range allowed for an accurate capturing of the newspapers' initial portrayals of the victims, underlining the influence of the primacy effect Holbert et.
All newspaper articles were retrieved from LexisNexis using only the names of the victims. An effort was made to select an equal number of articles from national and international outlets if possible, and particular attention was paid to articles from news outlets in the cities where the deaths occurred. Analysis of the articles were based on the concept of autoethnography, which allowed the authors to utilize personal knowledge of and experience with racial profiling, harassment, negative interactions with law enforcement, and involvement in protests stemming from a number of police brutality cases, as a primary foundation of expertise and evidence.
While this paper is an exercise in academic writing about current and social issues, for the authors — both of whom identify as Black males — the intersections of race, police brutality, and harassment are part of the lived experience which contextualize our social milieu. The relevance and urgency in creating a discourse around state violence, particularly law enforcement, upon the Black community, specifically unarmed Black males, is not at a distance but an immediate threat to the health and livelihood of the authors. Therefore, autoethnography becomes an important and useful methodology to include in this work because it relies on the narrators' credibility of using memory as legitimate data Ellis et.
In other words, as Blacks in America experiencing racism through forms of overt speech and actions, as well as through micro-insults and micro-invalidations Sue et. There has been a precedent set by scholars using autoethnography. Byfield, who is a Black woman and a reporter for the New York Daily News at the time of the event, covered the case from the arrest, trial, and conviction, and then followed up when another person admitted to the crime. People such as Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, and Malcolm X elucidated their narratives of being victimized by state violence, and their memories and experiences validated their claims.
Our personal encounters with harassment by law enforcement become a way in which we corroborate the narratives of unarmed Black males being killed by law enforcement. Additionally, he has experienced the physical and social manifestations of anger and pain due to the death of an unarmed Black male by law enforcement as a lifelong resident and participant in protests surrounding Freddie Gray's death in Baltimore, Maryland. These are just a couple of illustrations of law enforcement's abuse of power through micro-aggressions, believing the police were looking for a hostile reaction in order to escalate the situation.
Autoethnography is characterized by personal experience narratives, auto-observation, personal ethnography, lived experience, self-ethnography, reflexive ethnography, emotionalism, experiential texts, and autobiographical ethnography. Thus autoethnographic accounts are characterized by a move from a broad lens focus on individual situatedness within the cultural and social context, to a focus on the inner vulnerable and often resistant self. The election of Barack Obama as the 44 th President of the United States and the first Black president led many to believe that America achieved racial equality.
Despite the abundance of research specifying stark differences by race and creating enormous racial disparities, White Americans believe racial differences are declining Sue et. In addition, many White Americans view themselves as good, moral, and believe in equality, which would refute ideas of prejudice or discrimination Sue, Therefore, racism in a post-racial America is much more covert and implicit as opposed to earlier forms of overt and explicit forms of racial aggression. Scholarship indicates that new forms of racism have emerged via micro-aggressions that imply traditional racist ideology without having to be explicit in using race but now use other traditional American values e. The sample of news articles fell under two operational classifications, both derived from the concept of racial micro-aggressions.
A number of examples demonstrated aspects of both micro-insults and micro-invalidations, suggesting that the two are not mutually exclusive. In addition to the two operational classifications, the portrayals of the victims fell under four major recurring themes:. Behavior — the actions of the victim at the time of their death. Also found were actions of the victim prior to their death that could be considered correlational to the interaction with law enforcement. This included but was not limited to past criminality. Appearance — the look of the victim at the time of their death. This included both their physical composition as well as the style of apparel worn.
Location — the geographical area in which the victim's death occurred. Also found were references to the area in which the victim lived and references to the area s in which the victim frequented for social engagement. Lifestyle — the culture s with which the victim was associated. Family usually provided friends, this information, or close associates of the victim. Eric Garner's representation in newspapers primarily featured micro-invalidations revolved around his physical composition. Specifically, Garner's health and size, as he was a particularly tall and large individual with a number of preexisting medical conditions, were among the first pieces of information introduced in many of the articles:. The pound man, about to be arrested on charges of illegally selling cigarettes, was arguing with the police.
Schram et. A POUND asthmatic Staten Island dad died Thursday after a cop put him in a chokehold and other officers appeared to slam his head against the sidewalk, video of the incident shows. Murray et. The prominent references related to Mr. Garner's physical attributes were micro-invalidations and micro-insults regarding his behavior at the time of his death, which involved Garner vehemently defending his role in breaking up an altercation. Additionally were the micro-invalidations related to his past actions and lifestyle. The encounter between Mr. Garner and plainclothes officers, from the th Precinct, began after the officers accused Mr. Garner of illegally selling cigarettes, an accusation he was familiar with.
He had been arrested more than 30 times, often accused of selling loose cigarettes bought outside the state, a common hustle designed to avoid state and city tobacco taxes. In March and again in May, he was arrested on charges of illegally selling cigarettes on the sidewalk. The pending cases, which have now been dismissed and sealed, included selling untaxed cigarettes, driving without a license, and possession of marijuana, said a law enforcement official. Fox, Police suspected that Garner, who was African American, was selling untaxed cigarettes - a charge that he had faced numerous times before.
Blakely, The representation of Michael Brown in the media immediately following his death surrounded issues of behavior and appearance. The incident between Michael Brown and Officer Darren Wilson was wrapped in opaque details with various eyewitness testimonies contradicting each other. On one hand some witnesses, including Brown's friend, indicated that he had his hands raised in the air when Wilson opened fire. On the other hand others, including Officer Wilson, said that Brown lunged at the officer and physically assaulted him. Within days, articles appeared that implicated Brown in a robbery moments before his death:. Police on Friday said that Darren Wilson, the officer who shot and killed Michael Brown last weekend, confronted Brown after the teenager was identified as the main suspect in a convenience store robbery that occurred Saturday morning.
Almost a week after year-old Michael Brown was killed in Ferguson, the police department identified the officer involved as six-year veteran Darren Wilson. At a press conference at 9 a. The police also released video stills that appeared to show Brown threatening the convenience store owner, and a detailed report on the incident. Coscarelli, These reports became micro-insults and micro-invalidations to Brown's death as this report of him robbing a convenience store took precedent to the overall narrative of an unarmed young Black male being shot several times by a police officer. In addition, there were contradictions in news reports about the relevancy of the robbery and the stop of Brown by Officer Wilson.
Despite the opposing stories, the larger theme of associating the posthumous Michael Brown with robbery became the broader narrative. Beyond the theme of behavior was that of Brown's physical presence. Images released by the media showed Michael Brown's physical size. Duke, Shortly before his encounter with Officer Wilson, the police say he was caught on a security camera stealing a box of cigars, pushing the clerk of a convenience store into a display case. He lived in a community that had rough patches, and he dabbled in drugs and alcohol.
He had taken to rapping in recent months, producing lyrics that were by turns contemplative and vulgar. He got into at least one scuffle with a neighbor…He was hit at least six times, twice in the head. His 6-foot-4 frame lay face down in the middle of the warm pavement for hours, a stream of blood flowing down the street. Eligon, Very much married to the theme of the convenience store robbery, descriptions of his physical presence and lifestyle, including the coupling of rapping, has a negative connotation of both Brown's physical appearance and lifestyle. This larger-than-life description of Michael Brown is supported by Officer Darren Wilson's description of Brown in a media interview given in November Wilson stated:.
When I grabbed him, the only way I can describe it is I felt like a five-year-old holding onto Hulk Hogan…and then after he did that, he looked up at me and had the most intense aggressive face. The only way I can describe it, it looks like a demon, that's how angry he looked. Sanburn, While Wilson's description of Brown gave the impression of Brown being a colossal or more than human figure, it should be noted this imagery of Brown became another justification of the use of excessive and lethal force.
However, what was very much downplayed was the fact that Wilson and Brown were of the same relative size. In any professional boxing match or mixed martial arts fight, Wilson and Brown would fall into the same weight class, heavyweight. In other words, Wilson's imagery makes him the victim while simultaneously perpetuates Brown's criminalization. Despite the concerned effort to make this story not about police brutality or conscious excessive force, this case presented Gurley in several ways including his appearance and location as indications of micro-insults and micro-invalidations, which de-victimized him.
Akai Gurley's death gained coverage because of its timing of happening within days of the grand juries in both the Michael Brown and Eric Garner cases declining to indict the officers involved. Many images of Akai were used in news articles. The most flagrant image of Akai Gurley's mug shot was used by at least two international media sources. Beyond the use of mug shots, many of the images published of Gurley show him wearing urban fashion styles: cornrow hairstyle, flat brimmed hats, sunglasses, and visible neck tattoos Goodman, ; Corcoran, All of these images are associated with Blackness specifically, which are in turn linked to this idea of criminality Davis, ; Muhammad, In addition to Gurley's appearance is the location of his death.
Fagan et. Moreover the majority of those being incarcerated from New York City come from one of seven neighborhoods, East New York being one of them. The Pink Houses is a notorious New York City public housing complex making several online sites' worst housing projects Ettelson, The article discusses the collapse and neglect of the Pink Houses, particularly the lack of proper lighting in the hallways and uncleanliness of the environment. While the article is addressing real concerns of environmental justice and public safety issues, the timing of its release becomes an issue. From the beginning the NYPD claimed this shooting to be an accident because of lack of lighting in the hallways, which once again shifts the blame from the NYPD officer who killed Gurley to city government.
In addition, the theme of continually expressing how violent the Pink Houses are does two things: 1. Again, shift the blame from the officer who did not use proper training tactics and 2. Negates Gurley's death as a victim because he is associated with the Pink Houses which is linked to violence, therefore implicating Gurley as a criminal or violent. The micro-insults and micro-invalidations of Akai Gurley come out in a particular manner of subversive text and imagery to take the focus off the particular case of excessive police violence but rather focus on the physical character and appearance of Gurley and the location and environment of the event.
Tamir Rice's death was met with questions of lifestyle and behavior. However, the themes of micro-insults and micro-invalidations were expanded to include Rice's mother as part of his death. The first and most shocking theme that emerged out of this case of a twelve-year old child being shot and killed by law enforcement was the discussion of who was to blame. Initially, the city of Cleveland, Ohio announced that Rice caused his own death:.
Hensley, The city also stated in their response, obtained by Cleveland. Spargo, This blaming of a child for his own demise by a professional law enforcement agent is a micro-invalidation of his death. It puts the ownership on the victim rather than the perpetrator. Other forms of micro-insults towards the death of Tamir Rice were in the form of blame and lifestyle of his mother. Many on social media outlets were pondering and posing the question: Why did his mother allow Tamir Rice to play with a realistic-looking fake gun?
Again, this is a micro-insult, which implies Tamir's mother was not a good parent and did not exercise good parenting skills. This also reinforces micro-invalidation of Tamir's life because it implies his fault that he was shot for playing with this gun. Tamir Rice's mother, Samaria Rice's character became the focus. An article on Cleveland. This irrelevant connection to a previous drug charge becomes a way to invalidate and negate Tamir's death and his mother's credibility as a parent.
More recently, Samaria Rice has moved into a homeless shelter, which would also give a negative connotation of her unfit parenting and ability provide for her children, therefore to blame for Tamir's unsupervised playing with a toy gun. Like other cases, this case shifts the focus from excessive force by law enforcement and puts blame on the victim and victim's family. The perception of Tony Robinson was overwhelming concentrated on the behavior that immediately preceded his death, prompting a number of micro-invalidations and micro-insults based on presumed criminality:. Authorities have said Robinson, who was unarmed, was shot multiple times after he assaulted Officer Matt Kenny, punching him in the head and knocking him off balance.
Savidge, Anthony Robinson, 19, was killed about p. Officers were told a man was jumping in and out of traffic and was suspected of committing battery before he ran into an apartment, he said. An officer forced his way inside after hearing sounds of a disturbance, where Robinson struck the officer in the head, Koval said. The officer then fired his weapon. Frankel, Robinson was shot after Officer Matt Kenny responded to calls about a man dodging cars in traffic who had allegedly battered another person, according to police officials.
They said Kenny fired after Robinson attacked him. O'Brien, One newspaper, a local outlet, highlighted Robinson's past behavior that included criminality:. Wisconsin court records show that Mr. Robinson pleaded guilty to armed robbery last year and received a probated six-month sentence. Chief Koval declined to comment on Mr. Robinson's record. Brooks, Much of the narrative surrounding Freddie Gray focused on the behavior immediately prior to his arrest. Many considered his behavior suspicious and thereby warranted a presumption of criminality, resulting in examples of micro-insults:.
Four bicycle officers tried to stop Gray about 9 a. North Ave. He ran, police said, and the officers caught him and restrained him on the ground while awaiting backup. Sherman et. In a police report filed with the court, Officer Garrett Miller wrote that Gray was stopped after fleeing "unprovoked upon noticing police presence. Also notable in Gray's posthumous portrayal were micro-invalidation, which emphasized both, where he lived, known to be one of the more impoverished and crime-heavy neighborhoods in Baltimore, and also his prior interactions with law enforcement and the criminal justice system.
A few newspaper outlets included his physical composition:. Gray was a year-old resident of the neighborhood around the Gilmor Homes, a Baltimore Housing Authority project. He stood 5 feet 8 and weighed pounds. He had a police record, mainly on drug charges and minor crimes, according to court records reported by the Baltimore Sun. Muskal, Court records indicate that Gray's arrests were mostly for drug charges and minor crimes, and sometimes were not prosecuted. He had several cases scheduled for trial in the coming months. One case, involving charges for second-degree assault and malicious destruction of property, was scheduled for a June trial.
He also faced drug charges that were scheduled for trial in April and May. He has been found guilty of drug charges in the past; his sentences were unclear from court records. While media depictions of Black bodies have remained compliant to White supremacist structures using body type, negative images e. The purpose of this study is not to accuse any individual of holding those values, but to recognize how White privilege and other forms of privilege allow journalists and other media outlets to report on these cases the way they do, without self-reflection of how the words, images, and storylines are disseminated.
These narratives play a role in the initial assumption of the victim and can shift the perspective of how these victims are viewed. In this last section, we discuss the overall movement that has grown in wake of these deaths, BlackLivesMatter. It is important to recognize social movements and their usefulness in gaining equality. In the wake of the deaths of Michael Brown and Eric Garner, which occurred less than a month apart in Summer , activists, students, and many groups of various racial, class, and social backgrounds came together to protest the ways in which law enforcement handled these situations.
Other cities around the country took notice and joined in solidarity. Fast forward to November , when both the Eric Garner and Michael Brown cases were dismissed because grand juries decided to not indict either officer involved in these cases. The first decision came in the Michael Brown case. Contradictory testimony from eyewitnesses, racial tension in the community of Ferguson, and a prosecutor who seemed to not do his job dictated this case. However, the main argument was that there was no video evidence that confirmed either side's story. Conversely, a week later, a grand jury in Staten Island, New York, put forth a non-indictment verdict for the officer who was implicated in killing Eric Garner.
The main difference in this case from Ferguson was the video evidence. Over the next several days and weeks leading into the holiday season, mass movements began to emerge across U. If Black lives mattered in the United States, we would not see such disproportional rates of poverty, incarceration, school drop-out, lack of secure housing and other socially significant factors.
To not recognize racism as an ongoing problem only exacerbates the issue, silences and marginalizes those affected by it, and does not start the process of discourse on how to change cultural and social paradigms in society that only see young Black men as thugs. As previously mentioned, the aim of this study is not to accuse the selected newspaper outlets of intentionally perpetuating a negative or insensitive racialized portrayal of any of the aforementioned victims of police brutality.
We cannot ascertain the mindsets of neither the authors nor the editorial staffs who finalized the articles' publication, so to make such assumptions would be highly flawed and unethical. However, this study aims to highlight that the White-dominated media, newspapers included, is operated under the perspective of White privilege. Simply put, it is not their obligation to understand, let alone acknowledge, that what they believe to be a compliment, a term of endearment, a simple observation, or even the presentation of facts is anything but what they intended it to be. For as much as it seems that little progress has been made in the efforts to promote true racial equality, such blatant expressions of racial hatred are usually met with the highest levels of condemnation in American society.
The resulting adjustments made are that an individual who aims to exert their White supremacy over a person of color is socially inclined to do so via coded language — micro-aggressions, as previously detailed — as its subtlety limits mainstream detection. Additionally, the nature of micro-aggressions has evolved to include tangential facets and characteristics historically linked to people of color such as socioeconomic status and culture Clark et.
What occurs with the inclusion of tangential facets and characteristics to race is that the line of demarcation between entities that are intentional in their racial disrespect and insensitivity and entities that have no ill will are blurred. Therefore even honest reporting of an incident carries the risk of creating a negative persona for the victim, and that is what the selected newspaper articles exemplify. A reasonable question can be raised when considering the potential influence of micro-aggressions in media: should an outlet sacrifice journalistic integrity for the sake of a heightened sensitivity to racialized language?
The simple answer is a resounding no. Rather, outlets must be more judicious in the information that they decide to present regarding any incident, let alone deaths involving unarmed Black males and law enforcement. The situations previously examined provide many teachable moments. What greater clarity was achieved by readers in knowing that Tony Robinson was previously convicted for armed robbery Brooks, ? How does knowing that he lived in a housing project and had an extensive police record promote a better understanding of why Freddie Gray died Muskal, ?
Relative to the facts of each incident, these pieces of information were peripheral at best. The only contributions they potentially provide are a triggering of negative misconceptions that will be unconsciously and unjustifiably attached to these individuals. What is worse is that because this potential triggering is done in the immediacy following their deaths, when all information is novel, the perception created is very difficult to alter even in the face of more sound, debunking information.
The growing number of fatal law enforcement interactions involving unarmed individuals, especially Black males, warrants greater cognizance of the images created by the media of the victims. Simply regurgitating all information provided, most of which comes from the same law enforcement agencies involved in the altercations and could possibly contain an agenda, is no longer acceptable. True understanding of the power of racialized language, both overt and covert, should be the new standard of journalistic integrity.
Gray died on April 19, stemming from neck and head injuries he suffered while in police custody. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Hum Behav Soc Environ. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan 1. CalvinJohn Smiley a and David Fakunle b. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Appendix. Abstract The synonymy of Blackness with criminality is not a new phenomenon in America. Keywords: Black males, thug, media, social media, police brutality, racial profiling.
Literature Review Race is the most significant sociodemographic distinction in the United States. Jefferson uses observable data — presumably his own slaves — to come to his conclusions, stating: Besides those of colour, figure, and hair, there are other physical distinctions proving a difference of race. Additionally, according to David Pilgrim: These portrayals were pragmatic and instrumental. Litwack wrote: After stripping Hose of his clothes and chaining him to a tree, the self-appointed executioners stacked kerosene-soaked wood high around him…they cut off his ears, fingers, and genitals, and skinned his face…the contortions of Sam Hose's body as the flames rose, distorting his features, causing his eyes to bulge out their sockets…Before Hose's body had even cooled, his heart and liver were removed and cut into several pieces and his bones were crushed into small particles.
Methods Content Analysis For this study, media coverage of the deaths of six unarmed Black males resulting from law enforcement interaction were investigated. Analytical Plan For each incident ten news articles, each published no more than 30 days after the victim's death, were selected. Autoethnography While this paper is an exercise in academic writing about current and social issues, for the authors — both of whom identify as Black males — the intersections of race, police brutality, and harassment are part of the lived experience which contextualize our social milieu.
Overall, Autoethnography is characterized by personal experience narratives, auto-observation, personal ethnography, lived experience, self-ethnography, reflexive ethnography, emotionalism, experiential texts, and autobiographical ethnography. Operational Definitions The sample of news articles fell under two operational classifications, both derived from the concept of racial micro-aggressions. Key Themes In addition to the two operational classifications, the portrayals of the victims fell under four major recurring themes: Behavior — the actions of the victim at the time of their death.
Eric Garner Eric Garner's representation in newspapers primarily featured micro-invalidations revolved around his physical composition. If you're confident that a writer didn't follow your order details, ask for a refund. Any Paper. High Quality. All the papers we deliver to clients are based on credible sources and are quality-approved by our editors. Fast Turnaround. Our writers can complete a standard essay for you within hours and a part of a dissertation — in days. Why Customers Become Our Regulars.
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