❤❤❤ James Baldwins Impact On American Literature

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James Baldwins Impact On American Literature

This is a modification of a March quote by Israeli politician Abba Eban who James Baldwins Impact On American Literature, "Men and nations behave wisely when James Baldwins Impact On American Literature have exhausted all other resources. While a large stock pot is an Point Of View In Richard Wrights The Library Card option, a polycarbonate food box provides better insulation and it's easy to see the food cooking inside The Devils Thumb And Everest Comparison. Archived leadership strengths and weaknesses the original on May 18, Additionally, aromatics such as carrots, onions, celery, bell peppers, etc. New Yorker. Inthe United States Postal Service created a first-class postage stamp dedicated to Baldwin, which featured him on the front with Angela Carters Theory Of Gender Identity short biography on the back James Baldwins Impact On American Literature the peeling paper. Chris James Baldwins Impact On American Literature NP Comment. Men occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of them Solitude In Frankenstein themselves up and hurry off as if nothing ever happened.

[American Literature] James Baldwin - Notes of a Native Son

If you're not going to eat all your food immediately, then you need to know that some bacteria are able to make spores. Spores themselves will not make you sick, but they can become active bacteria that could. Cooking to kill active bacteria like Listeria , Salmonella , and E. If you keep your food hot, then the spores will not become active bacteria. But when you cool your food, the spores can become active bacteria: if you cool your food too slowly or store it for too long, then these active bacteria can multiply and make you sick. To keep these spores from becoming active bacteria, you must quickly cool your food — still sealed in its pouch — in ice water that is at least half ice until it's cold all the way through. You can then store your food in your refrigerator for a few days or freeze it for up to a year.

If you want to learn more about food safety, please continue reading below; see my book Sous Vide for the Home Cook ; the excellent free guide by Dr. Snyder ; the FDA's food safety website ; or your local health and human services department. My goal is to maximizing taste and minimizing the risk from food pathogens. While pathogenic microorganisms can be controlled with acids, salts, and some spices, sous vide cooking relies heavily on temperature control Rybka-Rodgers, Moreover, contrary to popular belief, food pathogens and toxins cannot be seen, smelt, or tasted. Indeed, the food pathogens that can multiply down to At These temperatures aren't quite right: it's well known that food pathogens can only multiply between We can divide sous vide prepared foods into three categories: i raw or unpasteurized, ii pasteurized, and iii sterilized.

Most people cook food to make it more palatable and to kill most the pathogenic microorganisms on or in it. Killing enough active, multiplying food pathogens to make your food safe is called pasteurization. Some bacteria are also able to form spores that are very resistant to heat and chemicals; heat the food to kill both the active microorganisms and the spores is called sterilization. To sterilize food sous vide, you'll need special retort plastic bags that can be used in a pressure cooker or an autoclave. Foods you've pasteurized must either be eaten immediately or rapidly chilled and refrigerated to prevent the outgrowth and multiplication of spores. Raw or unpasteurized food must never be served to highly susceptible or immune compromised people.

Even for immune competent individuals, it's important that raw and unpasteurized foods are consumed before food pathogens have had time to multiply to harmful levels. Pasteurization is a combination of both temperature and time. Consider the common food pathogen Salmonella species. This is often referred as a one decimal reduction and is written D 60 6. The z-value specifies how the D-value changes with temperature; increasing the temperature by the z-value decreases the time needed for a one decimal reduction by a factor ten. So, D 66 6. How many decimal reductions are necessary depends on how contaminated the beef is and how susceptible you are to Salmonella species — neither of which you're likely to know.

FSIS recommends a 6. The rate at which the bacteria die depends on many factors, including temperature, meat species, muscle type, fat content, acidity, salt content, certain spices, and water content. The addition of acids, salts, or spices can all decrease the number of active pathogens — this is why mayonnaise with a pH less than 4. Chemical additives like sodium lactate and calcium lactate are often used in the food industry to reduce the risk of spore forming pathogens like Clostridium species and Bacillus cereus Aran, ; Rybka-Rodgers, While hot holding the food will prevent any food pathogens from growing, meat and vegetables will continue to soften and may become mushy if held for too long.

How long is too long depends on both the holding temperature and what is being cooked. For cook-hold sous vide, the main pathogens of interest are the Salmonella species and the pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. There are, of course, many other food pathogens but these two species are relatively heat resistant and require very few active bacteria measured in colony forming units, CFU, per gram to make you sick. Since you're unlikely to know how contaminated your food is or how many of these bacteria your or your guests immune system can handle, most experts recommend a 6. The most popular methods of sous vide cooking are cook-chill and cook-freeze — raw or partially cooked ingredients are vacuum sealed, pasteurized, rapidly chilled to avoid sporulation of C.

Typically, the pasteurized food pouches are rapidly chilled by placing them in an ice water bath for at least the time listed in Table 1. For cook-chill sous vide, Listeria monocytogenes and the spore forming pathogenic bacteria are our pathogens of interest. That's because Listeria is the most heat resistant non-spore forming pathogen and can grow at refrigerator temperatures Nyati, b; Rybka-Rodgers, , but appears to require more bacteria to make you sick than Salmonella or E. Most experts recommend a 6 decimal reduction in Listeria if you don't know the contamination level of your food. While keeping your food sealed in plastic pouches prevents recontamination after cooking, spores of Clostridium botulinum , C.

Therefore, after rapid chilling, the food must either be frozen or held at. A few sous vide recipes use temperature and time combinations which can reduce non-proteolytic C. While O'Mahony et al. Most other food pathogens are able to grow with or without oxygen. In almost all cases, the cooking medium is either a water bath or a convection steam oven. Convection steam ovens allow large quantities of food to be prepared, but do not heat uniformly enough to use the tables in this guide. Sheard and Rodger found that none of the convection steam ovens they tested heated sous vide pouches uniformly when fully loaded.

In contrast, circulating water baths heat very uniformly and typically have temperature swings of less than 0. To prevent undercooking, it is very important that the pouches are completely submerged and are not tightly arranged or overlapping Rybka-Rodgers, At higher cooking temperatures, the pouches often balloon with water vapor and must be held under water with a wire rack or some other constraint. Seasoning can be a little tricky when cooking sous vide: while many herbs and spices act as expected, others are amplified and can easily overpower a dish.

Additionally, aromatics such as carrots, onions, celery, bell peppers, etc. Indeed, most vegetables require much higher temperatures than meats and so must be cooked separately. Finally, raw garlic produces very pronounced and unpleasant results and powdered garlic in very small quantities should be substituted. For long cooking times of more than a couple hours , some people find that using extra virgin olive oil results in an off, metallic, blood taste. Since the extra virgin oil is unheated and unrefined during production, it is reasonable that some of the oil will breakdown even at a low temperature if give enough time. A simple solution is to use grape seed or any other processed oil for longer cooking times; extra virgin olive oil can then be used for seasoning after cooking.

Since todays meat is younger and leaner than the meat of the past, many cooks marinate, tenderize or brine the meat before vacuum packaging. Most marinades are acidic and contain either vinegar, wine, fruit juice, buttermilk or yogurt. Of these ingredients, only wine presents any significant problems when cooking sous vide. If the alcohol is not cooked off before marinating, some of it will change phase from liquid to vapor while in the bag and cause the meat to cook unevenly. Simply cooking off the alcohol before marinating easily solves this problem. Mechanical tenderizing with a Jaccard has become quite common. A Jaccard is a set of thin blades that poke through the meat and cut some of the internal fibers. The Jaccard does not typically leave any obvious marks on the meat and is often used in steak houses.

By cutting many of the internal fibers that would typically contract with heat and squeeze out the juices, it can slightly reduce the amount of moisture lost during cooking. In general, more liquid weight is lost the longer a piece of meat is cooked at a given temperature— however, this additional weight loss is balanced by the increased tenderness from collagen dissolving into gelatin. Brining has become increasingly popular in modern cooking, especially when cooking pork and poultry. There are two schools of thought when cooking sous vide: either the temperature of the water bath is i just above or ii significantly higher than the desired final core temperature of the food. When cooking in a water bath with a temperature significantly higher than the desired final core temperature of the food, the food must be removed from the bath once it has come up to temperature to keep it from overcooking.

This precludes pasteurizing in the same water bath that the food is cooked in. Since there is significant variation in the rate at which foods heat see Appendix A , a needle temperature probe must be used to determine when the food has come up to temperature. To prevent air or water from entering the punctured bag, the temperature probe must be inserted through closed cell foam tape. Even when using closed cell foam tape which is similar to high density foam weather stripping , air will be able to enter the plastic pouch once the temperature probe is removed. In contrast, cooking in a water bath with a temperature just above the desired final core temperature of the food means the food can remain in the water bath almost indefinitely without being overcooked.

Thus, food can be pasteurized in the same water bath it is cooked in. While cooking times are longer than traditional cooking methods, the meat comes up to temperature surprisingly quickly because the thermal conductivity of water is 23 times greater than that of air. Moreover, temperature probes are not necessary because maximum cooking times can be tabulated see Appendix A and Tables 2. The myofibrillar proteins mostly myosin and actin and the connective tissue proteins mostly collagen contract when heated, while the sarcoplasmic proteins expand when heated. These changes are usually called denaturation. During heating, the muscle fibers shrink transversely and longitudinally, the sarcoplasmic proteins aggregate and gel, and connective tissues shrink and solubilize.

The water-holding capacity of whole muscle meat is governed by the shrinking and swelling of myofibrils. For more information, see either the nontechnical description in McGee, , Chap 3 or the excellent review article by Tornberg When cooking tender meats, we just need to get the center up to temperature and, if pasteurizing, hold it there from some length of time. Cooking times depend critically on the thickness of the meat: doubling the thickness of the meat increases the cooking time four fold! While there is no consensus as to what temperatures rare, medium-rare and medium correspond to, I use the temperatures in Table 2.

The approximate heating times for thawed and frozen meats are given in Tables 2. For a complete discussion on how these times were computed, please see Appendix A. If the food is not being pasteurized as is the case with fish and rare meat , it is important that the food come up to temperature and be served within four hours. It is important that only immune-competent individuals consume unpasteurized food and that they understand the risks associated with eating unpasteurized food. Prolonged cooking e. Indeed, prolonged cooking can more than double the tenderness of the meat by dissolving all the collagen into gelatin and reducing inter-fiber adhesion to essentially nothing Davey et al.

This tenderizing is caused by weakening of connective tissue and proteolytic enzymes decreasing myofibrillar tensile strength. In the food industry, sous vide is used to extend the shelf life of cooked foods. After pasteurizing, the food is rapidly chilled in its vacuum sealed pouch and refrigerated or frozen until needed. Before finishing for service, the food is then reheated in a water bath at or below the temperature it was cooked in. The danger with cook-chill is that pasteurizing does not reduce pathogenic spores to a safe level. If the food is not chilled rapidly enough or is refrigerated for too long, then pathogenic spores can outgrow and multiply to dangerous levels. For cooling and refrigeration guidelines, see Chapter 1. Since sous vide is essentially a very controlled and precise poach, most food cooked sous vide has the appearance of being poached.

So foods like fish, shellfish, eggs, and skinless poultry can be served as is. However, steaks and pork chops are not traditionally poached and usually require searing or saucing. Searing the meat is particularly popular because the Maillard reaction the browning adds considerable flavor. The Maillard or browning reaction is a very complex reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars. After the initial reaction, an unstable intermediate structure is formed which undergoes further changes and produces hundreds of reaction by-products. See McGee for a nontechnical description or Belitz et al. The flavor of cooked meat comes from the Maillard reaction and the thermal and oxidative degradation of lipids fats ; the species characteristics are mainly due to the fatty tissues, while the Maillard reaction in the lean tissues provides the savoury, roast and boiled flavors Mottram, The Maillard reaction can be increased by adding a reducing sugar glucose, fructose or lactose , increasing the pH e.

Even small increases in pH, greatly increases the Maillard reaction and results in sweeter, nuttier and more roasted-meat-like aromas Meynier and Mottram, The addition of a little glucose e. Mutagens formed in the Maillard reaction heterocyclic amines have been shown to be carcinogenic in mice, rats and non-human primates; however, while some epidemiological studies have shown a relation with cancer development, others have shown no significant relation in humans Arvidsson et al. While adding glucose increases browning, it can decreases the production of mutagens Skog, ; Skog et al. The type of fat used to sear the meat in a pan has only minor effects on the formation of mutagens, but the pan residue using butter was significantly higher in mutagens than when using vegetable oil Johansson et al.

In order to limit overcooking of the meat's interior, very high temperatures are often used to brown meat cooked sous vide. Typically, this means either using a blowtorch or a heavy skillet with just smoking vegetable oil. Since the searing time at these high temperatures is very short 5—30 seconds , mutagens formation is unlikely to be significant Skog, Fish lends itself particularly well to being cooked sous vide. Since sous vide brings out the natural flavors of the fish, it is important that only very fresh fish which still smells of the sea be used. When purchasing fish, the flesh should be shiny, moist and firm to the touch; have your fishmonger package the fish with ice and store the fish on ice in your refrigerator.

Just before cooking, always check for and remove any scales or pin bones with needle-nose pliers or tweezers. Fish intended for immune compromised individuals or for cold holding i. While such a pasteurization will reduce all non-spore forming pathogens and parasites to a safe level, it will not reduce the risk of HAV or norovirus infection from shellfish. Since the spores of non-proteolytic C. Remove the skin from the fillets. Then individually vacuum seal the fillets with 1—2 tablespoons of olive oil or butter. After removing the fillets from the water bath, the fish may either be served immediately perhaps after quickly searing in a hot skillet with just smoking oil or rapidly chilled in an ice water bath see Table 1.

Note that Fagan and Gormley found that freezing did not reduce the quality of fish which was cooked sous vide. While salmon mi-cuit is a popular among sous vide enthusiast, it should never be served to immune compromised individuals. The low cooking temperatures in this recipe are not sufficient to reduce the number of foodborne pathogens or parasites. The texture of sous vide prepared salmon is very moist and tender. To contrast this texture, the skin should be removed before vacuum packaging, crisped, and served as garnish. A common problem when cooking salmon, is that the protein albumin leaches out of the fish and coagulates unattractively on the surface. For crisp salmon skin to contrast the very moist and tender texture of the salmon, remove the skin from the salmon and then brine the salmon in the refrigerator for 10 minutes.

If cooking the salmon medium, the easiest way to crisp the skin and remove it from the salmon is to quickly sear the salmon skin side only in a pan over high heat with just smoking oil. The skin will then easily peel off the flesh. The skin can then be finished with a blowtorch or simply placed in a warm oven until needed. If cooking the salmon rare or medium-rare, cut the skin off the fish and then crisp it between cooking sheets in the oven. After the salmon has finished brining, rinse and pat dry with paper towels. Then season with salt, pepper and a hint of garlic powder.

Vacuum seal the seasoned salmon in a plastic pouch with 1—2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil frozen overnight if using a clamp style vacuum sealer. Cut the salmon into individual servings and vacuum seal. For rare and medium-rare salmon, cook the salmon for 15—20 minutes. For medium salmon, pasteurize it for the time listed in Table 3. Then remove the salmon from its pouch, garnish with crisped salmon skin, and serve immediately. Remove any skin from the breast and reserve for garnish or discard. If tenderizing with a Jaccard, do so before brining. Rinse and dry with paper towels.

Vacuum seal breasts one per bag. The breasts may be frozen at this point until needed. Remove breast from plastic pouch and dry with a paper towel. The meat can then be served as is or browned slightly by using either a very hot pan with just smoking oil or a blowtorch. Serve immediately garnished with crisped skin. After brining, rinse legs and pat dry with paper towels. Individually vacuum seal the legs with 2—4 tablespoons of rendered fat. Since some of the liquid in the bag will change phase to gas , the bag will puff and may float to the surface.

To prevent uneven cooking, the bags should be held under water using a wire rack or some other restraint. To serve, reheat and sear until skin is crispy. May also be served without skin and torn into pieces. In Figure 4. Crack egg and serve immediately. Therefore, when working with highly susceptible or immune compromised populations, pasteurized eggs should always be used in dishes which call for raw eggs e. Pasteurized intact eggs can be stored and used just like raw eggs. While the properties of the egg yolk are unaffected, the egg white is milky compared to a raw egg.

Whipping time is significantly longer for pasteurized eggs, but the final whip volume is nearly the same Schuman et al. For extended shelf-life i. After heating, sear the beef using either a blowtorch, a very hot grill, or a pan with just smoking oil. They also found that holding the beef in the water bath for 90— minutes did not have a significant effect on the cooking weight or the shear force. This is the lowest temperature at which insoluble collagen denatures dissolves into gelatin, at higher temperatures the denaturing occurs more quickly Powell et al. Beef cooked in a vacuum will look paler than medium-rare when first cut, but will get redder once exposed to oxygen. Rinse and dry steak with a paper towel. Jaccard steak, then season with salt and pepper.

Vacuum seal and freeze until needed. The meat will have a greenish-brown color after cooking which will disappear after searing. Remove steak from vacuum bag, pat dry with a paper towel, and sear quickly with a blowtorch or in a pan with smoking vegetable or nut oil. Dry roast with a paper towel. Then cut the roast so that it is no more than 70 mm 2. After removing the roast from its vacuum pouch, pat the roast dry with paper towels. Then sear the roast to a deep mahogany color using a blowtorch. Then slice and serve immediately.

Cut slits in the fat cap in a crosshatch patter. Rinse and dry brisket with paper towels. Flavor the brisket either by smoking it for 30—60 minutes or by searing the fat cap with a blowtorch. Then vacuum seal the brisket either whole or cut into two to four pieces. Remove the brisket from the vacuum sealed pouch and use the liquid from the bag to create a quick sauce by reducing in a pan over medium-high heat and adding a corn starch slurry to thicken.

Slice the meat across grain into long, thin slices and serve with beef glace. Vacuum seal pork chops one per bag. Remove chop from vacuum bag, pat dry with a paper towel, then sear quickly with a blowtorch or in a pan with smoking vegetable or nut oil. If bone-in, remove the bone from the pork roast with a boning knife. This collection is among the most comprehensive collections of Methodist books, documents and artifacts in the world offering insight into eighteenth- and nineteenth-century English and American religious and cultural history.

Special Collections at Drew University cover a wide range of materials from the 11th century to the present. Topics include religious materials such as hymnbooks, prayer books, and Bibles, as well as non-religious materials such as witchcraft, literature, graphic novels, and science fiction magazines. The library's special collections include a collection of books, manuscripts, artifacts and papers of Nebraska-born author Willa Cather — This collection, which is regarded as the best collection of Cather's papers assembled in the United States, was given to the university by several donors, including Frederick B.

The Rangers field 20 teams 11 female, 9 male in 12 varsity sports. Drew has several intramural sports programs. In the university's year history, Drew's faculty and alumni have taken leading roles in the ministry and missions of the United Methodist Church and other Christian denominations, in spiritual instruction, in academia, in public service, and in the professional world. Drew's faculty, starting with John McClintock and James Strong —especially with his magnum opus, Strong's Concordance [26] —to recent faculty members including philosopher Robert S. Corrington , the founder of "ecstatic naturalism"; [79] ethics professor Thomas C.

Oden , the founder of paleo-orthodoxy , [80] and Leonard Sweet , a leader in the emerging church movement , have continued to impact Christian theology and spiritual scholarship. Chapman , editor of the fourth and fifth editions of Roget's Thesaurus ; [81] Ira Progoff , a psychotherapist , developed the Intensive Journal Method , and researcher of depth psychology ; [82] and Irish history scholar Christine Kinealy. According to the UMC, Drew's seminary now has more than 3, alumni and alumnae "in 45 states and 18 foreign countries, including 21 bishops of The United Methodist Church. Appenzeller BD was the first Methodist missionary to Korea and fostered a relationship between Korea, the church, and Drew that endures to this day;, [27] Peter Deunov , Bulgarian philosopher and spiritual teacher, and Olive Winchester Th.

Alumni include popular historian and journalist John T. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. University in Madison, New Jersey. This article is about the private university in New Jersey. For the private medical institution in Los Angeles, see Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science. New Jersey. Main article: List of Drew University people. Ogden , 22 U. United Methodist Church Affiliated Institutions. Retrieved October 12, Retrieved September 18, October 10, Retrieved February 10, United Methodist Theological Schools. Retrieved October 13, Directions — Parking. Key People in Drew History. Retrieved October 23, Adapted from Joy, James Richard editor.

Drew University, The Theological School Cunningham states they studied law at Columbia, but no other source substantiates that. Cornell Legal Directory. Leonard was admitted to the New York bar in ; Arthur in Seventh Edition, — Nashville, Tennessee: Turner Publishing Company, , Retrieved October 26, May 5, Retrieved August 25, Retrieved March 4, Madison Patch. Retrieved September 13, The rollback means the Madison-based school will charge the same tuition it did in Retrieved October 16, Drew's accreditation will be reviewed on a standard timetable with its next Self-Study Evaluation in —, and is required to submit a Periodic Review Report in Retrieved October 17, Drew's accreditation is scheduled for a comprehensive evaluation in — for renewal.

Retrieved October 27, Members and Associates Directory. Drew University. Retrieved January 20, Retrieved July 21, Retrieved January 25, Archived from the original on February 2, Archived from the original on May 18, Archived from the original on May 19, Bob continued playing when he moved to the States, being involved with two local groups in his home town of Midland, Georgia. Bob also volunteered, latterly, at The Open Door Community House in Columbus, Georgia, teaching the trombone to underprivileged young people. Bob suffered a major heart attack on his birthday, 1 January , and died in hospital eight days later.

He was Obituary kindly supplied by Terry Baines Chemistry, ; Les and I met by serendipity, in the autumn of ; the Hugh Stewart Hall process for allocating accommodation had put us together. Les was a one-off. Les had been educated at Bishops Stortford School, so he appreciated the need for some home comforts and consequently he had brought with him in his elderly Austin Seven, a portable radio, a reel-to-reel tape recorder and an electric toaster. The latter acquired notoriety as, while it was carrying out its designated function, it could trip out all the power in L block.

Les, sensibly, enquired at the US Embassy on the chances of his being called-up and he was assured that this was very unlikely. Les landed in New York in late summer and started working for Kraft as an internal auditor. Six months later he was called up. Les had the option to return home but he decided that his future probably lay in the USA, a brave decision but typical of him. He served his two years, initially in at a camp in Oklahoma, an area he described as desolate. He was then posted to Korea. Fortunately by that time the Korean War was over and the Vietnam War had not yet started.

He also began his accountancy studies for the Certified Public Accountant qualification, which he achieved in His travels eventually brought him to Cleveland in , which became a turning point in his life. It was here that he met Linda, his wife to be, and a career change from the peripatetic to the settled role of company accountant. Linda and Les married in and subsequently had two sons, David and Ian. With his marriage to Linda, Les converted to Judaism. In he became president of his synagogue, a significant honour.

In he was invited to join the board of the Union for Reformed Judaism, a pan-USA organisation and he served on this until his passing. Les developed cancer of the liver in December , which despite a new immunotherapy treatment, progressed aggressively, necessitating hospitalisation in early March. During increasing discomfort and pain, Les remained courteous to the hospital staff. To the end he was true to himself, remaining stoic in the face of finality. Stanley worked as an engineer for 41 years, 37 of those in the Ontario Nuclear industry. His speciality became fuel handling, and he was part of an international team that bought the first Romanian nuclear plant into production at Cernavoda in Stan was a swim coach for many years, getting as far as Olympic trials with one of his swimmers in , and he also enjoyed sailing and bird watching.

Stan was married to Jacqueline for 44 years and had 3 children James, William and Elizabeth and 6 grandchildren. Obituary kindly supplied by Stanley's wife Jacqueline. This vastly elegant and humorous woman died saying she had achieved all she wanted. This included voluntary service overseas in Nigeria, a teaching career in a secondary school in Shropshire, a happy marriage and two daughters, retirement in Bristol and of course an honours degree in Nottingham. She was a buddy to many in Alcoholics Anonymous. Obituary kindly supplied by Valia Cochrane, English His nearly year professional career is difficult to summarize, but he has left behind a formidable legacy.

An extraordinary man of quiet and enormous will and commitment, he spent his life in service to his family, community, and country. He will be greatly missed. Obituary kindly supplied by Dr Saher Hasnain. Obituary from the Guardian. Online obituaries at the Guardian and at Ketso. Became a lecturer at Portsmouth Polytechnic retiring in As well as teaching his research areas were in Norway and Greenland working for the Geological Survey of Greenland. Obituary kindly supplied by Michael's wife, Diana. He moved to the Leeds University School of Law in and eventually became Head of Department there, before retiring in Peter wrote and co-wrote various publications on Criminal Law and on the Magistracy. He served for many years as a stipendiary Magistrate, and in , he was awarded an OBE for services to the administration of justice.

Obituary kindly supplied by Lawrence C. Samuels LLB Law We first met David nearly 60 years ago but still remember him with affection, despite meeting only occasionally since. Some of us needed more forming than others, but David already seemed to be the finished article with an easy-going, amusing and charming manner that stayed with him throughout his life. He brightened up many a dreary chemistry practical; having sailed through his own experiments he would saunter through the lab for a consoling chat with those who were still struggling or who had thrown the wrong solution down the sink.

Although David did not practise pharmacy for long, he maintained his Royal Pharmaceutical Society membership throughout most of his working life. Our sympathies are with his wife, Daphne, and family. We met in in Florence Nightingale Hall now FN and along with several other first year undergraduates. In FN we became good friends and have kept in contact ever since, regularly meeting up and attending Reunions at the University over the years. Sadly, our numbers are declining. Vaneeta entered teaching on graduation and after having children did a variety of jobs including tuition in a prison. Her main contribution to University life was Scorer for the Cricket Club. She loved the game and even accompanied them on their tours.

Dress rehearsal night allowed students to obtain concessionary tickets as well as a group concession. She remained a keen theatre goer and loved Gilbert and Sullivan, becoming a member of the Gilbert and Sullivan International Society and joining them on holidays around the world. In fact, it was on one of these in The Netherlands that she passed away on 22nd November Vaneeta never wasted an opportunity to be creative. She always carried knitting or sewing, wrote articles for Parish magazines, played the organ in several churches including Bawtry Parish church for the past 30 years and taught many piano pupils. Always a willing volunteer to assist wherever and whenever she could she could drive vast distances in a day. As a pet lover she even had a spell breeding Cavies.

She leaves two sisters ,four children, two step daughters and seven grandchildren. She kept a close and loving family with annual holidays house-sharing in Whitby and was a stalwart supporter of all of them. George was awarded his PhD in which he gained at Nottingham. His thesis work involved the study of precipitation of aluminium copper and aluminium lithium alloys.

He carried on as a post doc until when he joined Howson Algraphy. He was promoted to Professor of Corrosion Science and Engineering in George retired in , but carried on as Emeritus Professor until he was diagnosed with dementia in Obituary kindly supplied by George's spouse Marilyn. Paul was born on 14th May , and arrived at the University in to read Economics. He changed course to Theology in and graduated in Virtually all his working life was in Nottingham as an Anglican cleric, the director of Nottingham Council of Voluntary Service, and latterly as a senior manager in the City of Nottingham Education department.

He married Ruth Gent - Geography in They had two sons, Richard and Simon, and four grandsons. He was diagnosed with Parkinson's in and became chair of the Nottingham Parkinson's group until ill health made that role impossible. Please see obituary published by The Academy of Social Sciences. It is with great sadness that the family of Richard James Shorter B. Eng M. A announces he passed away peacefully on May 9th , at the age of 74 at Basildon Hospital surrounded by his family, after his aortic aneurysm ruptured.

Born 11 April, in Rochford; married ; divorced ; survived by 3 children — Sarah an accountant, Annabell a network and security engineer, Peter a commercial pilot, 4 grandchildren, 2 step-grandchildren, no dog but 3 fish. Richard graduated from Nottingham University in with a B. Hons Physics, 2. Based almost entirely at the Research and Engineering Centre, Dunton where he was a specialist in the design of off-board diagnostics systems for use in vehicle repair workshops, and combustion engines.

He presented the IEE Faraday Lecture Tour, co-authored several papers and presented lectures on diagnostic systems. He also represented Ford at an EU commission anti-competitive investigation. He had a 10 year break into Finance, in his own words " Truck Pricing Analyst. This was the only job I had that was not based at Dunton. It involved writing pricing papers for all European markets during a time of high inflation and rapid price movements and was extremely boring. This involved working with Product Planning, Marketing, Cost Analysis the interface to product engineering , Investment Analysis the interface to manufacturing , and Central Finance.

During this time the first desktop computers Apple lie and spread sheet VisiCalc arrived and I quickly realised their significance. Everybody else used a spreadsheet like a typewriter and created a new one for each application, with much entering of data and formulae followed by checking and correction of errors. I had done some programming in Algol at university and realised that it was possible to program a generic spreadsheet for payback and TARR calculations that only required a small amount of data to be entered. Then followed a career change to Computer Systems in Initially, I was on loan from Finance to Systems for one year but stayed much longer. In fact, he never went back. During his stay in hospital I read him a book he had bought about Ford and it became apparent he really had enjoyed a career during its design and engineering glory days.

Professionally, Richard had a very rare talent being an engineer and a qualified accountant, a very rare combination of skills which stood him in good stead in his professional life. Needless to say; his friends and colleagues had nothing but respect for Richard's intellect but also his wit. Many recall the times he had them crying with laughter, often unintentional on his part. Richard was a town councillor for Rayleigh, Essex where he lived for almost 50 years in the same house. He was an auditor for 10 churches and 1 Scout group accounts for over 30 years, donating his fees back to his own local church. His interests included first and foremost his boat, having owned sailing boats for 15 years since and motorboats since then.

He did all his own maintenance and repairs and was frequently contacted by other boat owners for advice. He also enjoyed latest trends in fireworks and what was going on in the pyrotechnic industry, ballroom dancing, camping and teaching Scouts to sail, garden birds, growing cucumbers, tomatoes and strawberries, steam trains and the Vulcan restoration project. His passion for science never left him and he continued to be well read and forever learning.

He was a lifelong supporter of his university and visited frequently. He lived his life to the end exactly as he wanted it. Whilst his sudden loss is felt widespread throughout his community, family and friends, we take a small comfort that he had been so active and never experienced the decline he was convinced would come he was a big supporter of Alzheimers research. We lowered his flag to half-mast probably the only home In Rayleigh to have one! Obituary kindly supplied by Richard's daughter Sarah Downing. She had lived independently, was active in her families lives and in her community, and had always enjoyed reasonable health other than the usual wear and tear of getting older.

In early summer , she experienced some unusual health issues and was diagnosed in August with an incurable brain tumour. She had surgery in early September to reduce the impact of the tumour and give her the possibility of a few more months of quality life, but she did not respond well to the operation and her health deteriorated rapidly in the days and weeks following this. Marion died peacefully in hospital, her family were fortunate to be able to see her every day and for the final few days were able to spend much more time with her when she was moved to a side room. Obituary kindly provided by daughter Jo. The above obituary was kindly supplied by Peter's sister.

Margaret passed away on 6th December after a short illness. Obituary kindly supplied by Tanya Robins. He was born in Sydney, Australia on 9 December and spent his early years there and in the south of France before his parents returned to live in Orpington, Kent. Following a year at the University of Pavia in Italy on a British Council scholarship, he returned to the University of Nottingham in as a demonstrator in the Department of Geography and then carried out his National Service in the Royal Navy, training as a Russian language interpreter and retiring as a lieutenant commander in After a year working in Peru at the National Office for Planning and Urban affairs he lectured at the University of Reading for one year before resuming his academic career at Nottingham, where he obtained his PhD and was also awarded a D.

Litt Doctor of Letters in in recognition of his extensive range of publications. He taught until his retirement in In he married Isabel Urrunaga, from Peru, and developed a strong interest in Latin American geography, although he also specialised in the geography of the Soviet Union through his advanced knowledge of Russian. He was also extremely active in quantitative methods in geography and was largely responsible for the introduction of computing into the subject.

During later years he focused more on global development issues and the European Union. He also published school textbooks, New Ways in Geography to with N. Beynon , Peru Performance and Prospects with P. Following his retirement he continued to write and to travel extensively with his wife Isabel. He was an accomplished artist, with many pen and ink drawings and oil paintings of places he visited, a dedicated father to his two sons Francis and Richard, and a doting grandfather to his eleven grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.

Following the death of Isabel he married Karen de Bres who was his faithful companion in Nottingham until he passed away peacefully at home. Obituary kindly supplied by John's son, Francis. I am writing to inform you that sadly my father who studied at the university in the 's has passed away. The father of one of his school friends made a lot of money by inventing two way stretch bras and as a consequence had a car almost unheard of at the time.

He gave dad a lift one evening and had to stop off en route at his lab. As he had done so well in Chemistry, as a result of his passion for explosives, he was put down for a Chemistry course at Nottingham but persuaded his Professor Bates to let him to change his preferred choice of Physics. Whilst at University he made a television set at home, but as the only transmitter was in London, he needed to put an aerial on the roof - very nearly falling off in the process. The component parts were spread around the bedroom including a volt supply to the cathode ray tube.

The first time it worked properly, the picture showed the Oxford Cambridge boat race with one boat nearly sinking. As it could only receive picture it had to be re-tuned to find out who nearly sank. He described it as a very esoteric with a slight self-reproach, reinforcing the fact that he has always thought of himself as a practical man. After completing his PhD, it was either find a research post or join the army. He went to work as a research scientist for Plessy at Caswell in Towcester, Northamptonshire. Mum worked in the factory painting colour codes on components, while her sister worked on the switchboard.

It was at Plessy where he famously saved time by liquidizing all the component parts of his breakfast before consuming them with inevitable outcome. He worked there for 13 years until overworking led to a detached retina. The surgeon, who spot-welded it back with a laser, advised getting a less stressful job. Obituary kindly supplied by Leigh Simpson. Margaret Maycock was the first member of her family to stay at school beyond the age of 14 and against all the odds she went to Nottingham University, graduating with B.

Sc Hons in Chemistry in She was one of only three girls in her year studying Chemistry, and one of the first students to gain a University of Nottingham degree instead of an external London degree. Margaret chose Nottingham University because her boyfriend, Gordon Haddon, had gone up the year before. He was very active in the University Rifle club and Territorial Army shooting teams under the famous Colonel Shaw and Dad talked mum into having a go. Mum always valued education as the route to a better life.

She became a teacher herself and as Head of the Chemistry Department at Northampton High School for Girls she inspired many girls to aspire to previously unimagined heights, and did all she could to help them to reach their potential. Obituary kindly supplied by Margaret's daughter Christina. It is with great sadness that Robin Humphrey has to let you all know that dear Mum, Ruth, passed away on Tuesday 9th October, Mum is and always will be very sadly missed.

She adapted so well to her new life there. Mum had so many varied pursuits in life, from gardening and horticulture, to painting, to travel, to history … anything of interest in fact. Uncle John as we called him then married Peggy in and all four of them remained such good friends throughout their lives. Ruth Humphrey also kept in touch with many other friends from her days at Nottingham where she studied geography. Obituary kindly supplied by Ruth's son, Robin. Robert leaves his wife, June, Botany , five adult children and fifteen grandchildren. Obituary kindly supplied by Robert's wife. My father Alan Norman was a student at Nottingham University BSc Civil Engineering. He died last year aged After serving with The Hampshire Regiment he was in the first wave of landings on D-Day where he was wounded several times he went to Nottingham University as a mature student, his career went from Stanton and Staverley, Notts to Redland Pipes Surrey from , where he became Technical Director.

A life spent in concrete mostly pipes and lighting columns. As my brother commented in his eulogy "at one time you were probably standing over or under something he had designed"! He met my mother when he was in Derby Royal infirmary recovering after the D-Day landings, she is still alive and well, and the living room of her house is still dominated by the print of Nottingham University. He established an international reputation for his pioneering experimental research into the fatigue strength of bituminous materials for road construction, which started in , and extended his interests into new design methods for roads.

Peter Pell was essentially a Nottingham man. Although he went to Sutton Valence School in Kent he returned to Nottingham as an undergraduate in after his war service as a Major in the Royal Engineers. After graduation, Pell joined the consulting firm of Oscar Faber and Partners as a structural engineer before returning to the University in to begin research on the fatigue strength of bituminous materials, working on a contract awarded by Shell.

He was appointed as a lecturer in and was successively promoted to Senior Lecturer in , Reader in and to a Chair in In , he was appointed to a four year term as a Pro-Vice-Chancellor and, in , also took on the task of leading his department following the retirement of Professor Rex Coates. His marriage to Janet Huntley on 21st August was a long and happy one lasting 67 years. She predeceased him by just 10 months. They were very much a team and provided frequent, generous and enjoyable hospitality to colleagues and visitors alike at their home overlooking the Trent valley.

He is succeeded by two sons, Robert and Charles, seven grandchildren and four great grandchildren. Obituary kindly supplied by Professor Stephen Brown. Ann graduated in with a BA honours first class in Social Administration. She had excelled at Bromley Grammar school in Mathematics but her chosen degree reflected a life-long concern for social welfare. Her wartime experience no doubt contributed to this, often describing the social conditions she had seen in her early teens whilst evacuated to north west Scotland. Bringing up Peter who was born in and Nicky in was a big part of these years. When David retired from the army they moved to Hertford where they lived for the next 40 years.

Ann worked as both a teacher, social worker and trainer for social workers in both Haringey and Hertfordshire. Her retirement was marked by activity with a wide range of volunteer, church and charitable projects with the elderly and those in need. She and David also spent time caring for their grandchildren, two of whom have now also graduated from Nottingham University. Throughout all these years she maintained contact with the many friends she and David had made. Obituary kindly supplied by Ann's son Peter Clifford. There he met his future wife, Jane Leach, who was reading for a National Diploma in Dairying — He went on to gain experience on a pig farm at Letton and married Jane in With the help of his uncle, he was able to purchase a small holding in Hevingham, Norfolk, a mixed livestock and arable enterprise, which became solely pigs.

In he moved to a larger farm in North Walsham, Norfolk where he was able to farm arable land again along side the pigs. He retired to Cley, Norfolk in and enjoyed sailing, birdwatching, and playing Bridge. He spent much time researching the history of the Hudson family and farming, stretching back some two hundred years, and with the help of his grandson, Louis Hudson, and the rest of the family published a personal book for them all to enjoy.

He was predeceased by Jane in He leaves a son, Anthony, and two daughters, Patricia and Alison, and seven grandsons. Obituary kindly supplied by William's daughter Patricia Hudson. Pran passed away peacefully at Joliette Hospital in his 91st year. Born in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and fluent in several languages, he was at home in many parts of the world over the course of his life—including Paris, Zofingen, Frankfurt, New Dehli, and since , Rawdon, Quebec. He will be remembered as an avid student of history, a fine photographer, a dedicated practitioner of English, and most of all, a tireless raconteur.

Obituary kindly supplied by Pran's wife, Renate. Kenneth Ward was born in Durham and was Head Boy at the Johnston Grammar School, before attending Nottingham University where he graduated from in having studied German and having spent some time in Heidelberg. During his university days, he played viola in the university orchestra and sang tenor in the choral society. It was here that he met Marion Ward nee Walker and they were married in Nottingham and were together for 60 years before his death in After graduating, he took up a teaching post in Nottingham, and was also fast tracked to become a licensed Lay Reader in the Church of England, a post which he continued to hold for over 50 years until ill health forced him to stop.

He was then made Reader Emeritus by the Bishop of Ripon. In Ken moved to Leeds to take up a teaching post for RE and German and remained in the same school until retirement having moved up through the ranks to Head of School. He continued his musical and church activities throughout his time in Leeds and left a lasting legacy to numerous organisations he was involved with.

Obituary kindly provided by Kenneth's daughter Caroline. Marion Ward nee Walker was awarded a scholarship to the prestigious Manning School in Nottingham at the age of 11 before being awarded another scholarship, to her home town university of Nottingham which she duly accepted and went up to read French and English. This was at a time in the late 40s when very few women were able to go to university and she remained proud of her achievement throughout her life. They both held teaching posts in Nottingham until when they moved to Leeds. Marion remained a teacher of modern languages until her retirement. She was very involved in her local church and was a keen amateur singer, having nutured that love of choral singing whilst at University.

Obituary kindly supplied by Marion's daughter Caroline. Pauline Alderman nee Vicary was the first of her family to attend University and she did so against their wishes. Turning down a pre-arranged job and travelling to Nottingham was a life changing step for her. At University she pursued her natural scientific bent, and indulged her passion for choral singing, through which activity she met her future husband, Cedric, an engineering student. After graduating, Pauline worked as a crystallographer for ICI at their research laboratories in Welwyn, Hertfordshire. Career prospects at the time did not favour women and she did not receive full credit for much of the research she undertook, although her work was published under joint authorship in the journals Nature, Acta Crystallographica and the Journal of the Chemical Society.

She left to take up teaching, a decision that facilitated a career break to bring up two sons, and which provided a convenient route back into employment, following the untimely death of her husband in a road accident. Whilst she had moved on a long way from her chemistry degree, she never forgot the debt she owed Nottingham University for giving her the opportunity to study for a degree and to gain a freedom she had not previously experienced. Obituary kindly supplied by Pauline's son David.

For a full obituary please see the School of Pharmacy. Obituary information kindly supplied by David's wife, Patricia. James William Saunders died peacefully on 5th May Loving father to Denis, Margaret, Elizabeth and Fiona, grand-father, great grand-father, teacher, educationalist and raconteur. Proud Irishman who loved living in England, rugby, guinness and tea. Funeral to be held at Amersham Crematorium on 19th May Strictly family only during the current measures. There will be a thanksgiving service in Rostrevor when travel is easier. Obituary kindly supplied by Denis Saunders. Doreen Shotton, former Mathematics student at the University of Nottingham, passed away on 14th September , at a hospice close to her home in Runcorn, Cheshire.

She is hoping that one of her grandchildren will follow her footsteps to the east Midlands. Doreen developed cervical cancer, which eventually got the better of her after a short illness. She leaves four children, 12 grandchildren and a host of fond memories. Obituary kindly supplied by Doreen's son, Mark. Audrey Turner, aged 82 years, passed away suddenly at her home in West Malvern on 4 th February She is survived by her three children: Alison, Lindsay and Meddon and by her five grandchildren. Born in Tredegar, South Wales, she was brought up in Leicester. She began her study for a degree in Mathematics at Nottingham University at the age of 17 years - young for the time.

In , Audrey was the only one of her cohort at that University to receive a First Class Honours degree in Mathematics. After completing her teaching diploma a year later, she taught Mathematics in a variety of schools and became a Lecturer at Worcester Training College. She maintained her keen interest in teaching through tutoring whilst her children were young. During her time at the school she acted as an adviser to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge with regard to their Common Entrance Examination papers, in particular Mathematics.

In , following the retirement of her husband, the couple moved to West Malvern where they quickly became involved in the local community. They developed a keen interest in bowls and bridge at which they were very proficient. Following the death of her husband in July , after 38 years or marriage, Audrey organised and ran extensive bridge groups at her house through the University of the Third Age. This brought her much pleasure and purpose in later life. Always wanting to keep her mind active and challenged, Audrey was never to be found far away from a crossword or puzzle book of some description. Her other enjoyments included reading books especially crime novels , visiting the theatre and watching detective programmes.

During her close companionship with Dr Roger Morgan until his death in , she became adept at tapestry work and researched her family tree back to Whatever Audrey put her hand to she did with excellence and dedication and these were the hallmarks of her well-lived life. She was devoted to her family and proud of all their achievements, as they were of her. To all who knew her, Audrey was interesting, clever, resourceful, selfless, reliable and caring. The legacy and the memories she leaves behind will all be greatly treasured. She will be sorely missed. For a full obituary please see MIT News. Gordon was always very proud of being among the first law undergraduates at Nottingham and was very grateful for the opportunities it gave him.

He was the first of his family to attend university and I was delighted to follow him there, if only for the one year PGCE! He is survived by his wife of 58 years, Margaret, their son, John, and grandchildren, Rebecca and Daniel. Obituary kindly supplied by Gordon's son, John. Guy was born on 30 October , at Arnold, Nottingham. The family moved to Cropwell Butler shortly afterwards where some of the family remains today.

He was educated at Ashby Grammar School. While at university he became farm manager for Major Spalding of Flawborough Hall, daily commuting to the University. Following Major Spalding's death in , Guy inherited the farm. The same year he married Ann Hayday from East Bridgford.

Here, James Baldwins Impact On American Literature met his future wife, Anna James Baldwins Impact On American Literature, a medical undergraduate. Obituary James Baldwins Impact On American Literature supplied by Dr Phillip Willey. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in Baldwin accused Christianity of reinforcing the system of American slavery by palliating Essay On New Age Skin Cream pangs of oppression and delaying salvation until a promised afterlife.

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