① Freuds Personality Theory In Lord Of The Flies
The subconscious is most evident in our dreams. This, again, is very comparable to how psychodynamic theorists karl marx sociology theory for OCD and related stress behaviors, perhaps indicating that trichotillomania is closely related to OCD. The Superego also creates our feeling of anxiety. When Freuds Personality Theory In Lord Of The Flies finds out the others are going to try and kill him, Freuds Personality Theory In Lord Of The Flies runsaway and hides. I believe the ego is represented by Ralph. The ego develops between age Freuds Personality Theory In Lord Of The Flies -2 in an infant. Juries In Criminal Law are Freuds Personality Theory In Lord Of The Flies -we hunt!
Discrimination, freud, and Lord of The Flies
Jack notices that he is in hostile territory, and his super-ego begins to hammer on his ego. The guilt that arises thereafter cannot be tolerated by Jack, who is guilty of not completing his duties, who, feeling threatened, turns the anger onto Piggy, presently punching him and knocking him down Golding Here, there is a struggle between the id , which wants to take out its aggression, and the superego, which instills a sense of guilt in Jack. The result is displacement : unable to cope with the greed of the id and the morality of the superego, the ego decides to appease them both by taking out his feelings on something weak, vulnerable, and defenseless—Piggy.
In so doing, Jack has temporarily satisfied his id. Like a hungry child, the id, once fed, will return to normal, until it begins to grow hungry once more. What has just occurred has been Jack acting out. Roger and Jack are both sadists. Golding describes a scene in which Roger throws rocks at the Littlun Henry:. Here, invisible yet strong, was the taboo of old life. Round the squatting child was the protection of parents and school and policemen and the law. Roger and Jack have both been raised in a society that values temperance, control, and politeness. They were scolded by their parents not to hurt their siblings; taught in school not to do mean things to other students; warned by the police not to break the law; conditioned by society to be behaved, to be like everyone else, to resist all urges.
Think, then, what this has done to their inner aggression, to have been repressed to such an extent! But here, on the island, things are different; no longer is there a higher authority to keep the boys in check. Roger, free to do as he pleases, unable to be punished, can be aggressive and not get in trouble. However, it is strange that he refuses to hit Henry directly, throwing instead into a small circle instead. Law and morality still remain with him. Despite his freedom, the idea of restraint has been ingrained into his mind. All it took to release it was the absence of punishment, be it from an external force, like a parent, or an internal force, namely the superego. Without the restraints of civilization, Roger, like Jack, regresses to his primal self, his aggressive, savage self.
Fromm wrote,. Another case in point is the change that occurs in the character when the total social situation changes. The sadistic character who may have posed as a meek or even friendly individual may become a fiend in a terroristic society…. Another may suppress sadistic behavior in all visible actions, while showing it in a subtle expression of the face or in seemingly harmless and marginal remarks.
Put another way, Fromm is saying that the sadist will feign a pleasant character in a certain environment, say a school, but will reveal himself in a different context, such as an island. This echoes Freud who also noted that society forces us to create reaction-formations. Because we cannot satisfy our aggressive tendencies, we must be exceedingly gentle. Fromm also notes that the sadist, even in a safe environment, will not completely hide his nature, as there will be minor signs, like expressions in the face, of which he spoke.
Jack is by the riverside, collecting clay, then smearing it on his face, covering it up. He looks at himself at the river and is satisfied. Hereafter, Jack relinquishes all remnants of his past life, devoured by his aggression, which takes control for the rest of the story. A small detail, the mask allows for disinhibition , allowing Jack to take on a whole new persona.
This mask hides who Jack was, endows him with new strength, and lets him get away with anything. It is no longer Jack who is acting but the mask. If Jack kills Ralph, it is not Jack who does it, but the mask. Granted this awesome power, Gyges abuses it, making himself invisible and killing the king and marrying his wife. Anonymity bestows upon its subject great powers, including immorality. A sense of invincibility is coupled with invisibility, seeing as Jack, hiding himself behind the mask, feels untouchable, as though he can do whatever he wants, since it is not he who is doing it. No more responsibilities are expected of Jack hence. When Jack steals fire from Ralph, the two come face-to-face.
Committing an unforgivable act, Jack, normally, would not be able to look the other boy in the face, an overwhelming feeling of guilt preventing him; but with his mask, Jack can easily steal from Ralph without thinking twice. Anyone who puts on the mask of paint is relieved of all expectancies, of all moral obligations, of all sensibleness. Freud observed that the barbarian was happier than the civilized man, inasmuch as the former could satisfy his impulses, whereas the latter could not; similarly, the hunters are more comfortable than Ralph because they can do what he cannot: gratify their aggression.
Thanatos , the major force through which Jack now operates, is committed to but one task: self-destruction, the return to the womb, to nothingness. Jack is never seen backing away from a daunting task, always one for a challenge, even if it may end up killing him. Eager to kill, Jack volunteers to go on pig hunts constantly, going as far as to hunt the dreaded beast that threatens their existence. Upon climbing the mountain, Ralph considers going back, but Jack calls him a coward, insisting that they go up.
Ralph calls their mission a foolish one, and Jack agrees, continuing up the mountain, determined to kill the beast. If this is so, if Jack wants to destroy himself, why is it, then, that he kills the pig earlier in the book? Simple trade-off: kill something else to avoid not killing myself. Like Prometheus, Jack tries to defy his god his superego, rather by stealing fire from their sacred home. It is a forbidden task, one that will surely result in suffering.
Only, unlike Prometheus, Jack gets away with it, despite almost being compromised, successfully. This small act of defiance further tips the scale of his death-instinct. With some thought and interpretation, these characters can be applied to Freud's theories. The id is the oldest of the sections involved in psychoanalysis Freud It relies upon instincts to make decisions, and everything in the id is genetically inherited at birth Freud Golding's Jack in Lord of the Flies is most representative of the id, as he primarily relies upon hunting as a means of gathering food, and bands his followers together in a tribe which utilizes little communication and acts primarily upon impulse.
It is the source of conscience which operates in terms ofa moral principle. The superego can cause problems as well. He first shows this right at the beginningof the movie when he says to Ralph: we ought to go find the others. Instead of facing extreme anxiety, people makethemselves believe that nothing is wrong. If this is done, a defensemechanism is being used. There are seven different types of defencemechanisms all of which are used to avoid anxiety.
Repression is ignoring or pushing away a thought, memory or feelingthat causes pressure or anxiety out of the conscious mind and into theunconcious. This showsrepression because he may have not had a good home life. Perhaps he wasabused as a child, and this w as painful for him so he pushed it away outof his conscious mind. Projection occurs when inner feelings are thrown away from the egotowards another object or organism in order to avoid anxiety. None of thecharacters used this defense mechanism. Reaction formation involves replacing an unacceptable feeling or urgewith its opposite. Jack shows this when he loses the vote to see who willbe chief of the island.
When he loses, he says fine. To him, it wasprobably not fine because he wanted to be chief and Ralph beat him. Hereplaced his upset emotions by saying fine. This is the complete oppositeof the true way that he felt. Regression means to go back to an earlier and less mature pattern ofbehavior to escape anxiety. When a person is under severe pressure andtheir other defenses are not working, they may start acting in ways thathave helped them in the past. Ralph shows this towards the end of thebook. When he finds out the others are going to try and kill him, he runsaway and hides. This does not seem like something Ralph would do. Usuallyhe would try to talk to them instead of running away from them. In thepast, he may have run away from his problems. Displacement occurs when the object of an unconscious wish provokesanxiety.
The anxiety is reduced when the ego unconsciously shifts the wishto another object. Whenever anxiety is upon Piggy or he is in anuncomfortable situation, he takes off his glasses and cleans them. Hisanxiety is reduced from being extremely uncomfortable, to merely worryingabout his glasses. Another example is when Jack lets the fire go out, heis most likely angry at himself. He projects his anger at Piggy bypunching him though he may not have deserved it. Denial means one refuses to believe that an event ever happened. Itis basically a severe repression. The boys use denial when they are toldthat there is a monster on the island. They say that there is no monster,but they do not know this for a fact.
Therefore, they are using denial. Rationalization means to create a false but plausible excuse to avoidanxiety. One situation in Lord of the Flies shows two different uses ofrationalization. When Simon is murdered, Piggy uses rationalization whiletalking to Ralph. Jack also shows rationalization in this situation. Sigmund Freud did not come up with the only theory of personality. Another one is a hierarchy of needs which was set up by Abraham Maslow.
Hebelieved that you have to satisfy the lower needs before you can get to thehigher ones. The levels starting from lowest to highest are basic needs,safety and security, love and belongingness, self esteem and selfactualization. Basic needs include hunger, thirst, warmth, shelter and sexdrives. The boys show basic needs when they agree that they are going toneed to build shelters.Due Freuds Personality Theory In Lord Of The Flies his maturity, he was the one who calmly and willingly went Freuds Personality Theory In Lord Of The Flies find out the true famous victorian paintings Freuds Personality Theory In Lord Of The Flies the "beast. He never really lost his mind either. The moment that they break apart the mind will influx. Itconsiders the external consequences of direct actions and behaviors,whether Freuds Personality Theory In Lord Of The Flies be good or bad. Simon, I feel, represents the "Super Ego".